Eclipse de Primavera (Spanish Edition)

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See p. The lines are of eleven and seven syllables,—the Italian structure. Of such nature are the poems on pp. For strophes in syllable lines, see p. Most of the lines rime, but without any fixed order, and lines are often left unrimed. A similar freely riming poem in lines of seven syllables is Villegas' Cantilena p.

These may be rimed, or in blank verse. Thus a glosa gloss is a poem "beginning with a text, a line of which enters into each of the stanzas expounding it. The name letrilla is applied sometimes to a little poem in short lines which may be set to music p. A madrigal is a short silva upon a light topic, an expanded conceit. The term cantilena is given to any short piece of verse intended to be set to music p. Serranillas , in which is described the meeting of a gentleman with a rustic maiden, are famous for the examples written by Juan Ruiz and the Marquis of Santillana.

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A villancico is a popular poem with a refrain, usually dealing with an episode celebrated in a church festival p. Versos sueltos, libres or blancos blank verse are formed, as in English, of syllable lines, with occasionally a shorter line thrown in. There is no rime, but sometimes a couplet may mark the close of an idea. The Spanish romances viejos , which correspond in form and spirit to the early English and Scotch ballads, exist in great number and variety.

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Anonymous and widely known among the people, they represent as well as any literary product can the spirit of the Spanish nation of the period, in the main stern and martial, but sometimes tender and plaintive. Others may have their roots in older events, but have undergone constant modification since that time.

The romance popular is still alive in Spain and many have recently been collected from oral tradition cf. But modern investigation has shown conclusively that no such age can be ascribed to the romances in their present form, and that in so far as they have any relation with the epic cycles just cited they are rather descendants of them than ancestors,—striking passages remembered by the people and handed down by them in constantly changing form.

Many are obviously later in origin; such are the romances fronterizos , springing from episodes of the Moorish wars, and the romances novelescos , which deal with romantic incidents of daily life. The romances juglarescos are longer poems, mostly concerned with Charlemagne and his peers, veritable degenerate epics, composed by itinerant minstrels to be sung in streets and taverns to throngs of apprentices and rustics. They have not the spontaneity and vigor which characterize the better romances viejos. The most comprehensive modern collection is that of A.

The best selected is the Primavera y flor de romances of Wolf and Hofmann Berlin, , reprinted in vols. IX has given still more texts, notably from the third part of the Silva , one of the rarest books in the world. The fundamental critical works on the romances are: F. The romances , as usually printed, are in octosyllabic lines, with a fixed accent on the seventh syllable of each and assonance in alternate lines.

Lockhart , John Bowring , J.

Novilunio | Spanish to English Translation by Lexico

Gibson and others. Lockhart's versions are the best known and the least literal. In the six romances included in this collection the lyrical quality predominates above the narrative cf. See S. Morley's Spanish Ballads , New York, It is said that on the morning of the battle he questioned one of his Moorish allies, Yusuf Ibn Alahmar, concerning the conspicuous objects of Granada. The verbal forms in- ara and- iera were used then as now as the equivalent of the pluperfect or the preterit indicative.

In the romances the conditional often replaces the future, usually to fit the assonance. El Alhambra: in the language of the old ballads el , not la , is used before a feminine noun with initial- a or e -, whether the accent be on the first syllable or not. This expletive que is common in Spanish: do not translate. Probably it is merely an allegorical fragment of a longer poem now lost. It is one of those printed in the Cancionero general of It was well translated by Bowring.

This theme is found in the Physiologus , a medieval bestiary. One of these animal stories relates that the turtle-dove has but one mate and if this mate dies the dove remains faithful to its memory. Notes , June, Turtel-Taube , and February, In avecicas and tortolica the diminutive ending- ica seems to be quite equivalent to- ito. Knapp's Span. This usage is now archaic, although it is still sometimes used by modern poets: see p. See also haya in the following line. Lockhart says of "Count Arnaldos," "I should be inclined to suppose that.

In order that the reader may judge for himself he should have before him the mysterious song itself, which, omitted in the earliest version, is thus given in the Cancionero de romances of , to follow line 18 of the poem:. These few lines, translated by Lockhart as "The Wandering Knight's Song," are only part of a lost ballad which began:.

It seems to have dealt with an incursion of the French into Spain, and the lines here given are spoken by the hero Moriscote, when called upon to defend his country. Don Quijote quotes the first two lines of this ballad, Part I, Cap. El amante desdichado. Named by Lockhart "Valladolid.

Twelve lines of this poem were printed in It seems to be rather troubadouresque than popular in origin, but it became very well known later. Lockhart's version is called "The Captive Knight and the Blackbird. This line is too short by one syllable, or has archaic hiatus. See Versification , 4 a.


This usage is now archaic or dialectic. Gil Vicente ? A strong creative artist and thinker, Vicente is the greatest dramatist of Portugal and one of the great literary figures of the Peninsula. Vicente himself wrote music for the song, which was intended to accompany a dance. John Bowring made a very good metrical translation of the song Ancient Poetry and Romances of Spain , , p. In the Spanish of the ballads the article is regularly used with a noun in the vocative.

Saint Theresa believed herself inspired of God, and her devotional and mystic writings have a tone of authority. She is one of the greatest of Spanish mystics, and her influence is still potent cf. While a professor at the same university he was accused by the Inquisition and imprisoned from to , while his trial proceeded.

He was acquitted, and he taught till his death, which occurred just after he had been chosen Vicar-General of his Order. The greatest of the mystic poets, he wrote as well religious works in prose Los nombres de Cristo, La perfecta casada , and in verse translated Virgil, Horace and other classical authors and parts of the Old Testament. In gentleness of character and in the purity in which he wrote his native tongue, he resembles the Frenchman Pascal. His poems are in vol.

Ticknor, Period II, Cap.

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IX, and Introduction , p. La vida retirada is written in imitation of Horace's Beatus ille. In these lines there is much poetic inversion of word-order. The logical order would be: Que 'for' el estado de los soberbios grandes no le enturbia el pecho, ni se admira del dorado techo, en jaspes sustentado, fabricado del sabio moro. In the sixteenth century great fortunes were made by Spaniards who exploited the mines of their American colonies across the seas.

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  8. Note, this unusual enjambement ; but the mente of adverbs still has largely the force of a separate word. This famous sonnet has been ascribed to Saint Theresa and to various other writers, but without sufficient proof. The poem was translated by J. Gibson The Cid Ballads , etc. Alone he created the Spanish drama almost out of nothing. Born at Madrid, where he spent most of his life, Lope was an infant prodigy who fulfilled the promise of his youth.

    His first play was written at the age of thirteen. He fought against the Portuguese in the expedition of and took part in the disastrous Armada of His life was marked by unending literary success, numerous love-affairs and occasional punishments therefor. In he was ordained priest. For the last twenty years of his life he was the acknowledged dictator of Spanish letters. Lope's writings include some plays, of which perhaps are extant, epics, pastorals, parodies, short stories and minor poems beyond telling.

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    He undertook to write in every genre attempted by another and seldom scored a complete failure. His Obras completas are being published by the Spanish Academy ; vol. Most of his non-dramatic poems are in vol. There is a Life in English by H. Rennert The palm has great significance in the Roman Catholic Church.

    On Palm Sunday,—the last Sunday of Lent,—branches of the palm-tree are blessed and are carried in a solemn procession, in commemoration of the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem cf. John, xii.